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Turkey
INTRODUCTION
1. Geography
2. Political situation
3. Economy
a. Figures
4. Health
5. Education
a. Universities
6. Demographics
7. Religions
a. Freedom
8. Peoples
9. Languages
10. History
11. Cities and Towns



























Open the online Arabic language course






Index / Languages
Open map of TurkeyFlag of TurkeyTurkey /
Languages



Languages
Figures in 1000.
Turkic 60,750 79.0%
Turkish
59,800 78.0%
Azerbaijani
530 0.7%
Balkan Gagauz Turkish
415 0.5%
Uzbek, Southern
3 <0.1%
Iranian 13,600 18.0%
Kurdish
11,000 14.0%
Northern
11,000 14.0%
Zaza-Gorani
2,000 2.6%
Dimli
1,700 2.2%
Kirmanjki
300 0.4%
Persian
600 0.8%
Caucasian 1,425 1.8%
Circassian
1,300 1.7%
Kabardian
1,000 1.3%
Adyghe
290 0.4%
Georgian
50 0.1%
Laz
50 0.1%
Abaza
10 <0.1%
Chechen
8 <0.1%
Abkhaz
7 <0.1%
Semitic 600 0.8%
Arabic
580 0.8%
North Levantine
480 0.6%
North Mesooptamian
100 0.2%
Aramaic
5 <0.1%
Turoyo
5 <0.1%
Indo-European 420 0.6%
Bulgarian
300 0.4%
Armenian
60 0.1%
Serbian
35 <0.1%
Albanian
20 <0.1%
Greek
5 <0.1%
Pontic
3 <0.1%
Indo-Aryan 55 0.1%
Domari
30 <0.1%
Romani
25 <0.1%

The development of Turkey into a national state has caused the cleansings of three peoples with history deeper than the Turkish presence in Anatolia (see genocide of Armenians and Assyrians and cleansings of Greeks). The Turkish constitution clearly states that "No language other than Turkish shall be taught as a mother tongue to citizens of Turkey at any institution of training or education" (article 42).
The situation for minorities in Turkey has been difficult and remains difficult, even if Turkish membership aspirations with the European Union, has resulted in some reforms.
Today, 79% has Turkish as first language, Kurdish about 15%. Other large languages count Zazaki, which many classify as a Kurdish language; Circassian; Arabic; and Azerbaijani. Zazaki is mainly spoken in southeastern Anatolia, Circassian in the central mountains of Anatolia, Arabic is spoken in the south, close to the border to Syria, while Azerbaijani is spoken in the eastern parts of Anatolia.
Turkish Armenians mainly live in Istanbul, taking refugee in the most cosmopolitan and tolerant climate in the country.
Other languages are yet not taught in Turkish schools, and even universities that teach in multiple foreign languages do not offer courses in any Turkish minority language. In recent years separate language schools have in principle been allowed following pressure from the EU, but Turkish bureaucracy have done its very best in making this impossible. Broadcasts in non-Turkish languages began very late, in 2000's, and remains highly disproportionate to the size of the minorities. Armenian. (see Armenian Genocide).




By Tore Kjeilen