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Islam
INTRODUCTION
1. Orientations
a. Figures
2. Koran
3. Theology
4. Concept of divine
5. Sharia
6. Muhammad
7. Cult and Festivals
8. Mecca
9. Cultic personalities
10. Caliph
11. Structures
12. Popular religion
13. Others
14. Calendar



























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Islam /
Muslim Calendar/Hijra Calendar



Muharram Ashura Mawlid an-Nabi Sawm Layla al-Qadr Id al-Fitr Hajj Id al-Kabir

Online tools
Gregorian-Hijri Dates Converter
Very easy to use converter that goes both ways.
Hijri and Gregorian calendar
Converter with slightly more functions, including this month calendar.

Calendar system used in Islam. In the Muslim calendar the year is only 354 days long, 11 days shorter than the Western calendar system. This is because of its lunar system, where every year consists of exactly 12 moon cycles.
The other common name of the Muslim calendar is "hijra", referring to the fleeing of the Prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib (later Madina).
The hijra calendar starts counting its days starting on July 16, 622 CE, which is the estimated date of Muhammad's flight to Yathrib.
Translating "hijra" with "fleeing" is not altogether correct — "cutting off relations" is better, and a term that well explains why this incident was chosen as the start of the Muslim calendar: With Muhammad and his followers on the way to Yathrib, Islam becomes defined as an independent force from the old religion of Mecca at the time.
As the year is shorter in the Hijra calendar the seasons come earlier for every year. Through a cycle of 34 hijra years the hijra calendar will have returned to the same seasons compared to the Western calendar.
It is commanded in the Koran that the Muslim calendar should consist of 12 purely lunar months, and there are no form of leap days or months to make up for the shortness of the year compared to the seasons.

Koran sura 9: Repentance
36 Verily, the number of months with God is twelve months in Godís Book, on the day when He created the heavens and the earth; of these are four that are sacred; that is the subsisting religion. Then do not wrong yourselves therein, but fight the idolaters one and all, as they fight you one and all, and know that God is with those who fear.

Each new month of the Hijra calendar, is marked by a crescent moon, not a new moon. Hence the symbol of Islam — the crescent moon. But there are different ideas about how one should define the visibility of the crescent moon, resulting in small differences in calendars around the Muslim world. This also means that the number of days in each month can vary. But nowadays, the observations made in Cairo in respect of the start and end of Sawm have become directional for most other Muslim countries. According to the Muslim calendar, the day starts at sunset.
The equation for finding the Christian year from a hijra year, is to divide by 1.031, then add 622. In order to find hijra year from Christian, first subtract 622, then multiply with 1.031.

History
622 July 16: Muhammad and his followers have to flee from Mecca, and seek refuge in the town of Yathrib. In Yathrib, Muhammad finds protection and becomes a respected and prominent member of the local society. This date is defined as the starting point of the Muslim era.
638: The hijra calendar is defined as a response to many conflicting dating systems used at the time. It was caliph Umar ibnu l-Khattab who called for a common dating system for the Muslims.




By Tore Kjeilen