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Islam
INTRODUCTION
1. Orientations
a. Figures
2. Koran
3. Theology
4. Concept of divine
5. Sharia
6. Muhammad
7. Cult and Festivals
8. Mecca
9. Cultic personalities
10. Caliph
11. Structures
12. Popular religion
13. Others
14. Calendar



























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Islam / Caliph /
Abu Bakr
Arabic: 'abū bakri ¢abdi llāhiPlay sound


(Ca. 570-634) In Islam , the first Caliph 632-634.
Most Muslims consider Abu Bakr positively, both Sunnis, Shi'is and Ibadis. Sunnis largely explains his qualities to his close relationship to Muhammad and the first Muslim leader after his death. Shi'is have a more complex view, considering him favourably, yet as a symbol of profound injustice, because his rule is a human one and not divinely guided, hence illegitimate and tyrannical.
We know little of Abu Bakr's early days, but he is supposed to have been of the same age as Muhammad, and he was either the first or second male to covert to Islam.
His position among the first Muslims was also improved or at least confirmed by his active participation in successful military campaigns. Sunni traditions depict him as pious and he soon became Muhammad's chief adviser. Sunni tradition has it that Muhammad gave Abu Bakr some of the central religious positions, like leading the hajj in 632, and leading the congregation in the public prayers in Madina. Considering the Sunni texts all made Abu Bakr the natural leader of the Muslim community after Muhammad's death. Shi'is traditions differ strongly on this, relating that it rather was Ali that had been appointed by Muhammad.
To Abu Bakr is often attributed taking the first steps of the conquests that took place in the following decades, conquests that would make Islam the strongest power in the world, especially during the reign of the Umayyads.
Abu Bakr was succeeded by Umar.

History
Ca. 570: Born in Mecca.
Ca. 610: Is one of the first to accept the teachings told by Muhammad.
620: Gives his 6 year old daughter, A'isha, to Muhammad, but marriage would not be consummated until she was 9. Abu Bakr with this strengthens his already close position with Muhammad.
622: Is one of Muslims that flees Mecca, Hijra,seeking refuge in Yathrib (later named Madina). He quickly emerges as one of the leaders of the Muslim emigrants.
632: Following the death of Muhammad, Abu Bakr becomes the leader of the Muslims, forming the position that would be called caliph. He ruled from his quarters in Madina.
— Many tribes that had sworn allegiance to Muhammad refuses to be subjected to Abu Bakr, thereby motivating the Apostasy War (ar-Ridda), see Ridda. Abu Bakr would succeed in forcing most tribes back under his control by 623.
634: Dies in Madina, and is succeeded as caliph by Umar.




By Tore Kjeilen