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Ancient Egypt
1. Introduction
2. People
3. Life styles
4. Culture
5. Education and Science
6. Society
7. Economy
8. Government
9. Cities and Villages
10. Language
11. Religion
12. Kings / periods
13. History
14. Map

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Open map of Ancient EgyptAncient Egypt / Third Intermediate Period /
25th Dynasty

Years BCE
Piy 747-716
Shabaqo 716-707
Shabitqo 707-690
Taharqa 690-664
Tanutanami 664-656

Stele of Shabaqo (right) making offerings to the god Horus and goddess Wadjet (left).
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Stele of Shabaqo (right) making offerings to the god Horus and goddess Wadjet (left).

Representation of King <A HREF=tanutanami.htm>Tanutanami</A>.

Representation of King Tanutanami.

Dynasty of Ancient Egypt 747-656 BCE, 91 years, consisting of 5 kings, belonging to the Third Intermediate Period.
This dynasty emerged in Napata, a kingdom of Cush, corresponding to modern northern Sudan. Cushite King Piy made effective advances into Upper Egypt in the middle of 8th century and managed to establish permanent control. In 732, he led a northbound campaign that came as far north as Memphis, but he did not proceed into the Nile Delta, thereby allowing the 22nd Dynasty rulers of Lower Egypt to remain in power. Rather he established this new dynasty, ruling from Memphis.
In 715, the new Cushite king, Shabaqo, defeated the rulers of the 24th Dynasty in the most brutal way. The 22nd Dynasty also came to its end, by that time a weak state structure. Shabaqo was able to take control over a united Egypt, and since he also was king of Cush, Egypt now came to its greatest extent along the Nile ever. Egypt would remain united until 671, altogether 44 years.
The main challenge for Egypt at this time was the emerging Assyrian Empire, which took hold of large parts of the Middle East. When facing the Assyrian army, a united army of Egyptians and Nubians proved not to be very united after all, proving incapable to hold the Assyrians back. In 671, King Taharqa was driven out of Lower Egypt, but returned 2 years later to reassert control over the territory as far north as Memphis, but this would only last 2 years when a new Assyrian campaign was launched on Egypt. Late in the 660's, new Cushite king, Tanutanami launched a successful campaign against Lower Egypt, but again Assyrian troops would drive the Cushites back to Thebes. Tanutanami chose to relocate to his Cushite homelands, and in 656 Thebes passed passively to the new 26th Dynasty of Sais, which was backed by the Assyrians.
The Cushite rulers embraced ancient Egyptian culture, especially Old Kingdom artistry. On Piy's victory stele from 730, he is presented in full conformity with Egyptian culture. Most things indicate that his successors continued such a line; the 25th Dynasty kings brought the tradition of royal burials in pyramids back to life, establishing the royal cemetery at Al-Kurru (modern Sudan).
During this period, the new office called God's wife of Amon, served by a woman, grew largely in influence in Thebes. The office of High Priest lost most of its importance, over a period it appears that it was empty or even shut down.

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By Tore Kjeilen