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Ancient Egypt
1. Introduction
2. People
3. Life styles
4. Culture
5. Education and Science
6. Society
7. Economy
8. Government
9. Cities and Villages
10. Language
11. Religion
12. Kings / periods
13. History
14. Map

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Other spelling: Sas

Sais, Egypt

Sais, Egypt


Ruined former city, and briefly capital, of Ancient Egypt located to the Western Nile Delta, along the Rosetta branch of the Nile river.
Sais was originally the capital of the 5th nome of Lower Egypt. It served as capital of the 24th and 26th Dynasties, the first one lasting only 12 years in th 8th century, the second dynasty lasting 139 years in the 7th until the 6th centuries.
Most of the visible ruins date to the 8th to the 6th centuries BCE, nothing can be found older than 11th century. But it is attested that the history of Sais goes back to pre-dynastic times. Most of ancient Sais is now covered by the modern village of Sa al-Hagar. Some few reliefs have survived, but the site has also been little excavated.
Sais was center of the cult of the goddess of war and hunting, Neith.

4th millennium BCE: Sais emerges as an important trade and cult centre.
727: Emergence of the 24th Dynasty, as the local ruler, Tefnakhte, makes alliances and advances south in direction of Memphis.
715: King Bakenrenef is killed together with possible heirs, by the command of Cushite king, Shabaqo. This ends Sais period as a capital.
671: The Cushites are defeated by the Assyrians, and the governor of Sais begins to take control over large parts of the Nile Delta.
664: Psametik 1 establishes a new dynasty, the 26th from Sais. Sais would now emerge as capital of all of Egypt.

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By Tore Kjeilen