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246 BCE-224 CE

Persia /
Parthian Dynasty
Also called: Arsacid Dynasty; Arshakuni

King Mithradates 1 of Parthia.
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Coin of King Mithradates 2 of Parthia.

Rulers (Kings)
Beginning with years BCE
Arsaces 1 246-211
Artabanus 1 211-191
Priapatius 191-176
Phraates 1 176-171
Mithradates 1 171-138
Phraates 2 138-128
Artabanus 2 128-124
Mithradates 2 124-87
Gotarzes 1 91-78
Orodes 1 78
Sanatruces 77-70
Phraates 3 70-58
Mithradates 3 58-57
Orodes 2 57-37
Phraates 4 37-30
Tiridates 2 30-29
Phraates 4 29-28
Tiridates 2 28-26
Phraates 4 26-2
Phraataces 2 BCE-4 CE
Orodes 3 4-7
Vonones 7-11
Artabanus 3 11-38
Gotarzes 2 38-51
Vardanes 39-47
Vonones 2 51
Vologases 1 51-78
Pacorus 2 78-79
Artabanus 4 79-81
Pacorus 2 81-115
Vologases 2 106
Chosroes 109
Parthamaspates 115-116
Chosroes 116-128
Mithradates 4 128-147
Vologases 3 147-192
Vologases 4 191
No ruler 192-207
Vologases 5 207-213
Artabanus 5 213-226
Artavasdes 226-227

Dynasty of Persia 246 BCE-224 CE, but its power was challenged by the Seleucid Kingdom for about 80 years, until 164 BCE. The kingdom of the Parthians is usually called Parthia.
The Parthians originated from the Parni tribe of the coastal areas east of the Caspian Sea. In order to legitimize their rule, the Parthians claimed descent from Artaxerxes 2 of the Achaemenid Dynasty.
In many fields of culture, the Parthians represented a continuation of the Achaeaminds. The administrative system was arranged after the Hellenistic Seleucids, involving cities built according to Hellenistic layout as well as the formation of vassal kingdoms.
The Parthian period of Persian history was one of wealth, and great building projects. The region profited from trade between Asia and the Mediterranean. Despite internal stability, the northeastern borders were often under nomad attack, and a wider area suffered from repeated attacks by the Scythians.

Around 330 BCE: Parthia is joined by Hyrcania, being one province under the Seleucid kingdom.
Around 300 BCE: The Parni tribe moves from Central Asia into Parthia, becoming an integrated part of the original population.
Middle 3rd century: Emergence of the Parthians as a strong political force. According to legends, their first king is Arsaces 1, who revolted against the Bactrian Greeks.
Around 200: The Parthians have established a kingdom south of the Caspian Sea, north of the Alborz Mountains.
Middle 2nd century: All of the Iranian plateau is conquered by the Parthians, under king Mithradates 1.
Around 100: The Scythians are defeated by Mithradates 2 the Great. He also wins large territory from the Armenians.
92: After winning territory from the Seleucids, a treaty is forged between Parthia and Rome.
70's: Parthia passes through a period of instability, ending first with Phraates 3 becoming king.
54: Rome attacks Parthian control of Mesopotamia, but it would remain under Parthian control.
Late 1st century CE: Disintegration of Parthia, a period of contesting kings.
115-17 CE: Roman attack on Parthia.
198: Roman invasion destroying much of the infrastructure of the Parthian kingdom.
224: The Parthians are overthrown by the Sassanids.

By Tore Kjeilen