Ancient Egypt / Middle Kingdom / 11th Dynasty /
Other spelling: Nebhapetre
Mentuhotep 2 is often referred to as "1", due to poor records of a Mentuhotep founding the 11th Dynasty.
Mentuhotep 2's main achievement is clearly that he managed to unify Egypt, after a 60 year long division. By the time of his accession, Egypt north of This (150 km north of Thebes) was ruled by the Heracleopolitan kingdom. The time of division had been troubled by continuous warfare.
Mantuhotep 2 launched an attack on his enemy in 2024 following a revolt in the north. First he had Assyut captured. But it would take 28 years before he had them defeated, and could reunite Egypt. But he still had many enemies, like the Berber tribes raiding the Delta area and Nubia in the south. He managed to annex Nubia towards the end of his reign.
Upon reunification, Mentuhotep kept much of the old power structure, but had the entire country organized as a feudal organization, with Thebes as the capital.
The reunification, as well as the reduction in military costs, resulted in great economic progress for Egypt. Many building projects were started, and the greatest of them all was the Temple of Mentuhotep 2 in Luxor (next to the later Temple of Hatshepsut) in which there also was a tomb complex. Mentuhotep also embarked on large projects on Elephantine, and had new monuments built in Dendera and Abydos.
He was succeeded by Sankhkare Mentuhotep 3.
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