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Ancient Egypt
1. Introduction
2. People
3. Life styles
4. Culture
5. Education and Science
6. Society
7. Economy
8. Government
9. Cities and Villages
10. Language
11. Religion
12. Kings / periods
13. History
14. Map

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1650-1550 BCE

Open map of Ancient EgyptAncient Egypt / Second Intermediate Period /
15th Dynasty
Ancient Egyptian: hega-khase

Showing only known rulers.
Sheshi 13 or 23 years
Yakubher 8 or 18 years
Khyan ?
Apepi 1 Ca. 40 years
Apepi 2 ?


Hyksos figure of the goddess Astarte.


Hyksos steatite scarab, but Nubian design elements.

Dynasty of Ancient Egypt 1650-1550 BCE, 1 years, consisting of 5, possibly 6, rulers. It lasts the full length of period called the Second Intermediate Period.
This dynasty is also simply called Hyksos, ruling from Avaris in the Nile Delta. The Hyksos was a foreign dynasty placing kings and an elite in charge of Egypt to the result of becoming the most disdained among all eras of Ancient Egyptian history.
There is very little exact knowledge about this dynasty.
They were already well established as powerful, local rulers at Avaris when they took control over Memphis, the capital of Egypt in 1650 BCE. Their leader at this point is stated to have been Salitis, considered founder of the 15th Dynasty, yet not on most king lists. The 15th Dynasty did not rule all of Egypt, but many scholars consider the southern dynasty, the 16th to have been vassals of the 15th Dynasty. The Hyksos remained in Avaris, from where they could administer Egypt and collect taxes.
The rule of the Hyksos resulted in a period of peace and prosperity. Egyptian religion was respected, and Egyptian culture survived well, even though the culture of the Hyksos was introduced in the Nile Delta area. Practically nothing remains of their monuments, but the Hyksos came to have lasting influence on Egyptian military technique, with the introduction of horses and chariots.
The revolt against the Hyksos emerged in Thebes, under the leadership of Kamose during a time of stability in Egypt. The Hyksos did not only lose their position, the people were largely expelled from Egypt, having to return to the heartland of Palestine. /*/ Hyksos' king, Apepi 1, was first challenged by King Tao 2, but he managed to defend his kingdom. Kamose, the succeeding Theban king, attacked both Apopis and Nubia. Within 3 years great advances into the lands of the Hyksos had been made, threatening Avaris. It is possible that it was Kamose who inflicted the final defeat of the Hyksos, which is what legend tells. Still, it is possible the victor over the Hyksos, was the founder of the 18th Dynasty, Ahmose 1.

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By Tore Kjeilen