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Judaism /
Hebrew: yahedut
Arabic: 'ad-diyana 'al-yahūdiyya

1. Geography
2. Myths and theology
3. Rituals
4. Prohibitions and regulations
5. Organization
6. Holy places
7. History
8. Calendar

Pre-monotheistic period
Ca. 2000-ca.800 BCE
Around 1900: A certain religious orientation, where one
god is more important than other gods, slowly develops. This came with the development of a people identifying themselves with words close to "Hebrew" or "Israel". Words like "Jew" or "Judaism" was probably not yet introduced.
Around 1300: A new orientation in the religion of the Hebrews, with the covenant. With this, the complexity of rituals and obligations reached a new level in the religion. The idea of just worshiping one god has been presented, but has not yet become a part of the religious life. Even among theologians, there was an acceptance of the gods of other peoples. But for the Hebrews, only Jhwh (vocals were not written, and there are two main theories for the full name: Jehovah or Jahveh).
Around 1200: Hebrews settle in Canaan, and would slowly grow into an important political forces in the region.
Around 1000: The Ark of Covenant is brought to Jerusalem, hence making this the centre of the Hebrew religion.
Around 950: The first Temple of Jerusalem is built by King Solomon.

Monotheistic period
Ca. 800 BCE-70 CE
Around 800: With the development of the religion of the Hebrews....
Around 800: Israel in the north breaks with Judah in the south.
722: Israel is conquered by
605: Judah is conquered by Babylonia, and a great number of its inhabitants were taken into exile by the Babylonians.
586: Jerusalem is destroyed, and the Temple razed. The Israelis were exiled.
538: The Jews (the name had established itself even for those of Israeli origin) are allowed to return to their lands by King Cyrus 2 the Great of Persia.
515: The second Temple of Jerusalem is completed.
Middle 5th century: King Artaxerxes of Persia declares the Torah to be the law of the Jews.
168: Antiochus 4 bans Judaism.
166: The Maccabean revolt, led by Judas Maccabaeus, who fights to win back Jewish rights.
163: Judas Maccabaeus succeeds in obtaining religious freedom for the Jews, but continues to fight for creating an independent kingdom for the Jews.
160: Judas Maccabaeus is killed, and the Maccabean revolt comes to an end.
Second half 2nd century BCE: The Torah is translated into Greek.
— Split in Judaism, between the supporters of the Written Law, the Sadducees, and the supporters of the Oral Law, the Pharisees.
63: The lands of the Jews are captured by Roman Empire.
Around 30-40 CE: The religious revolutionary Jesus tries to reform Judaism, but fails. Instead a new religious orientation, at first Jesus-Judaism, later Christianity emerges.
66: Jewish revolt against the Romans and their restrictions on Judaism.
70: The Temple of Jerusalem is destroyed for the second time, and the revolt is suppressed.

Long diaspora and Traditional Judaism
70 CE-ca. 1800
1st century: Contrary to what many seem to believe, the Jews were not driven out of Palestine, but Jerusalem was closed for Jews, and turned into a military colony. By this, the Jews had no chance of practicing their religion close to their ritual centre, and many chose instead to settle in other parts of the Roman Empire.
Around 200: The oral traditions of Judaism are starting to be compiled by Jewish scholars, like Judah ha-Nasi and have interpretations add to them (see
15th century: Due to geographical differences, the Jews in the Iberian peninsula and North Africa start orienting themselves in a different direction than the Jews of northern, central and eastern Europe. The first branch came to be known as Sephardi, the second as Ashkenazi.

Modern Judaism and Zionism
Ca. 1800-1948
Around 1800: A process of enlightenment takes place among Ashkenazi Jews, resulting in
Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism.
1938: Organized persecutions of Jews in German controlled areas start (after the start of World War 2 in 1939, this area came to cover large parts of Europe. Many Jews are killed.
1942: Industrialized killing of Jews and other groups start. Over the next 3 years, some 5,7 million Jews were killed.
1945: End of World War 2, and the Jews have managed to build much sympathies in Europe and North America, and hence great support for the establishment of their own country in Palestine.

State of Israel
1948: With the establishment of the state of Israel, the Jews get their home country. Israel is a country that gives protection for all citizens, but it is defined as a Jewish state. Organized immigration starts, allowing Jews from Africa, Asia and Europe in particular to settle in the new state.
— Politics in Europe change, giving Jews full civil rights and protection.

By Tore Kjeilen