Islam / Caliph / Umayyads /
yazīd bni mu¢āwiyya
(645?-683) Caliph of Sunni Islam 680-683, belonging to the Umayyad dynasty.
Yazid's reign was dominated by great divisions of the Muslim world, and he died before he had a chance to take control over rebellious regions, like the Hijaz.
Although he may appear to be insignificant, and even weak, the opposite is the truth. Yazid accomplished relatively much in his short reign, he introduced reforms to the bureaucracy and military, he altered the taxations system and saw to many improvements of the agriculture and irrigation of the capital Damascus.
645: Born, possibly in Damascus, as son of governor of Syria, Mu'awiyya, who would become caliph from 661.
680 April/May: With the death of his father, Yazid becomes new caliph.
Abdullah ibn Zubayr declares himself caliph in opposition to Yazid, taking control over large areas, ruling out of Hijaz.
October 10: Faces his main contender to the caliphate, Husayn, the grandson of Muhammad, at the Battle of Karbala. Husayn is killed.
683: Yazid starts on a campaign against Abdullah, and besieges Mecca. The Ka'ba is destroyed in the fighting. Yazid dies before the campaign is concluded, and with his death the caliphate troops withdraws from Mecca.