Ancient World /
The Asian parts of Turkey, or Anatolia, are fairly well-defined from nature's side. Surrounded by sea on most sides, the rising mountains towards Georgia, Armenia and Iran, and the falling mountains towards Iraq and Syria. The mountainous border is one which has shifted back and forth, but there has alway been a clear distinction between Syria and Turkey at least.
Turkey's geography is not one
Ancient Turkey has been the home of several outstanding civilizations, of which the Hittites (ca. 1680-1200 BCE) and Lydia (685-546 BCE) are among the foremost.
Kingdoms, empires and peoples
Hattians. Central parts, until around 1800 BCE.
Hittites. Central and eastern parts, around 1800 until 710.
Urartu. Eastern parts, 13th century until ca. 585.
Sea people. Seems not have settled, but originate in western Anatolia. 1231-1180's.
Ahhiyawa. Possibly western Anatolia, Before 1300-after 1200 BCE.
Phrygia. Western and central parts. Around 1200-700 BCE.
Lydia. Northwestern parts, beginning of the 8th century-546
Pontus Northeastern parts,