Trucial Oman; Trucial Coast
From 1853 to 1971, name for Arab tribal regions along the Persian Gulf, under British administration. Most of the Trucial States would become the United Arab Emirates in 1971.
Flag of the Trucial States
Palace of the Emir of Sharjah.
Ship building in Dubai Creek.
Watchtower in Dubai.
The Trucial States consisted of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras al-Khaimah, Umm al-Qaiwain, Ajman and Fujairah, and from 1931, also Bahrain. The states had semi-independence, leaving military defense and foreign politics to the Great Britain.
The area was before signing a treaty in the middle of the 19th century, known as the Pirate Coast. Both this name and 'Trucial Coast' were politically motivated. 'Pirate Coast' appears to have been used in order to justify British involvement, while 'Trucial Coast' was used to indicate the imposed stability of the region. Piracy was performed by local seamen, but not to the extent that 'Piracy Coast' was a correct designation.
1820: The British force the shaykhs on the coast to stop piracy.
1853: A treaty signed between the shaykhs and the British. The region is given the name of 'Trucial Coast'. The treaty involved a maritime truce, and British assistance to cooperation between the shaykhs.
1873: The Trucial Coast becomes administered by the British.
1892: A new agreement, the shaykhs gives the British effective control over foreign matters. The British offers military protection in return.
1931: Oil is discovered, and national consciousness increases. Bahrain later joins the neighbouring Trucial States and Qatar in the Federation of Arab Emirates.
1952: The seven emirates establishes a Trucial Council.
1960's: Emerging problems between the British and the emirs, connected to the interests of developing the oil industries and preserving traditional culture. Shaykh Shakbut of Abu Dhabi was the most conservative in this matter, and also in control of some of largest oil reserves.
1966: Shaykh Shakbut is overthrown, and Zayed bin Sultan an-Nahayan becomes new ruler of Abu Dhabi.
1967: The Trucial States Council is formed, aiming at better coordinating matters between the shaykhs.
1970: Independence is given to the emirates.
1971 September: Bahrain and Qatar becomes independent states.
December 2: Abu Dhabi and Dubai forms a independent union, inviting the other shaykhs to join. All remaining but Ras al-Khaimah accepts.
1972 Ras al-Khaimah joins the new federation of United Arab Emirates.