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Islam
INTRODUCTION
1. Orientations
a. Figures
2. Koran
3. Theology
4. Concept of divine
5. Sharia
6. Muhammad
7. Cult and Festivals
8. Mecca
9. Cultic personalities
10. Caliph
11. Structures
12. Popular religion
13. Others
14. Calendar



























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Islam / Orientations/ Sufism /
Qadiriya
Arabic: qādirīya



Qadiriya centre and school in Umm Dubban, next to Khartoum, Sudan.
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Qadiriya centre and school in Umm Dubban, next to Khartoum, Sudan.

Qadiriya shaykh in Umm Dubban, next to Khartoum, Sudan.
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Qadiriya shaykh in Umm Dubban.

Sufi order (tariqa) established in the 12th century in Baghdad by Abd al-Qadir Jilani (1078-1166) originally from the Gilan in Iran. It is therefore one of the oldest Sufi orders.
Note that "g" does not exist in Arabic, "j" is used instead, therefore Gilan has become Jilani.
The silsila of Abd al-Qadir goes through Ali and the 7 next imams, before following a line of lesser known shaykhs.
Qadiriya has the majority of its members outside the geographical scope of this encyclopaedia, more closely in India, Pakistan, the Balkans, much of East and West Africa and Chechnya (Russia). But there are also strong Qadiriya communities in Turkey.
The Qadiriya order is well fitted inside mainstream Islam, but interprets Islam in a mystical manner, meaning that the full understanding of the Islamic truth is experienced through rituals of the dhikr type. The actual rituals set down by Abd al-Qadir Jilani were few, and this reflects upon the order today. Each regional community may develop its own dhikrs.
The Qadiriya is more than religious rituals, but also a movement stressing importance issues in the everyday life. Philanthropy, humility, piety and moderation are central values.
This is the reason why Qadiriya has been among the most accepted Sufi orders among other Muslim scholars. Even the first theoretician of conservative Islam, Ibn Taymiya of the 13th and 14th centuries was a follower of Qadiriya.
Historically, Qadiriya has been a strong force even in politics, and Abd al-Qadir of Algeria was a Qadiriy shaykh.
The Rifa'i order is an 1182 offshoot of Qadiriyya.

The Jilaliya
There is also a group in Maghreb, known as Jilaliya, which is little described in research. The Jilaliya have interpreted Abd al-Qadir Jilani as a supernatural being. They include him in their worship using many practices from local non-Islamic religions.




By Tore Kjeilen