Ptolemy of Mauretania
(Died 40 CE) Last ruler of the kingdom of Mauretania. He is the last known descendant of Egyptian queen Cleopatra and the Ptolemaic family, that ruled Egypt 305-30 BCE.
He received his education in Rome, and was both Roman citizen, as well as Roman in culture and identity. As king he had the status of client king under Rome, and he was known for his loyalty. Still, his death was an assassination ordered by the emperor, clearly suggesting that there were forces in Rome considering him a threat. The actual motivation for the assassination is not known. As a ruler, he was a patron of art, learning, literature and sports.
With his death, Mauretania was split into two Roman provinces: Mauretania Tingitana to the west and Mauretania Caesariensis to the east, both ruled by governors appointed directly by Rome, replacing the line of hereditary kings of which Ptolemy had become the last.
1st century BCE: Born in Mauretania, possibly Caesaria (modern Cherchell), no later than 19 BCE, as son of King Juba 2 and Cleopatra Selene. His mother was the daughter of Mark Antony and Egyptian queen, Cleopatra.
21 CE: Returns to Numidia and becomes co-ruler with his father, Juba 2.
23: Juba 2 dies, and Ptolemy becomes king of Mauretania.
24: Only with the aid of a large Roman army is Ptolemy able to defeat a rebellion that had begun in Numidia and spread into Mauretania. Despite large losses, Ptolemy is acknowledged in Rome for his loyalty.
40: Is assassinated by the order of Emperor Caligula. Directly or indirectly motivated by this, Mauretanians begins a revolt against Rome that lasts for 4 years, before being crushed.