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Peacock Throne
Persian: takht tāvus

Peacock Throne, Golestan Palace, Iran

Replica in Golestan Palace.

Nasser ed-Din sitting on a replica of the Peacock Throne
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Nasser ed-Din sitting on a replica of the Peacock Throne.

Throne of the Indian Mughal emperor, from 1739 of the Persian shah. The throne was lost or destroyed only after 8 years in Persia, but its fame and symbolical value had already grown to the point that two replicas were built in the 19th century. It is highly uncertain to what extent these replicas (as you see on the illustrations) were accurate.
The term "Peacock Throne" would go from denoting the actual throne to become a term for the Persian monarchy, for the position of the ruler.
The throne was shaped like a bed, standing on tall table legs with two or three steps leading up to it. Western visitors to Delhi in the 17th century measured the bed part to being 1.8 by 1.2 metres, between 0.5 and 0.6 metres high. From its bars rose 12 columns supporting a canopy. It was decorated with 108 rubies, 116 emeralds and numerous pearls.

Early 17th century: The Peacock Throne is built for the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
1739: Delhi is captured by Nadir Shah, taking the Peacock Throne into his own possession.
1747: The throne is lost or destroyed in the chaos following the death of Nadir Shah.
1812: A new Peacock Throne is constructed for the coronation of Fath Ali.
1836: Another Peacock Throne is built for the coronation of Mohammed.

By Tore Kjeilen