HaMossad LeModein Ve Tafkidim Meyuhadim
Israeli foreign intelligence service. The full name translated into English is Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks. Mossad is the most important, and famous of the five intelligence and espionage organizations in Israel. But other organizations, like the military one, represent larger institutions.
The Mossad crest.
|From 1989 until 1996, the heads of Mossad were a state secret.
According to a report of the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of 1976, published by Iranian authorities, Mossad consisted of 1,500 to 2,000 personnel, of which 500 were officers. Activities were divided into 8 departments: 1) Operational planning and coordination, 2) Collection, 3) Political action and liaison, 4) Manpower, finance, logistics and security, 5) Training, 6) Research, 7) Technical operations and 8) Technology. It is likely that Mossad remains of about the same size today and covering about the same operations.
Mossad has agents in all important countries around the world, as well as in Arab countries. It is alleged that the country where Mossad has most agents, is in the USA, where they serve an important role in directing US Mid-East policy. There are no evidence, but many indications that Paul Wolfowitz, Deputy Secretary of Defence, hence a central member of the Bush administration of USA is working closely with Mossad.
Mossad activity is diverse, and varies from silent operations like monitoring individuals and organizations, to manipulating journalists, politicians and organizations, to the kidnapping and killing of individuals.
Mossad is often regarded as one the most effective and well-informed intelligence organizations in the world, but there have been incidents where innocents have been killed, and they never succeeded in their many attempts of killing Saddam Hussein following the Gulf War in 1991.
It is believed that Mossad has been one of the main providers of the intelligence on Iraq's alleged "weapons of mass destruction" and nuclear programs, leading up to the US/British-Iraq War of 2003.
Mossad has been unusually crude in its work of defending Israeli and Jewish interests abroad, and have had some of the most hated system and state leaders as partners. They supported South Africa’s apartheid regime when no one else would, and provided arms and training for dictators like Idi Amin of Uganda, Papa Doc and his succeeding son, Baby Doc of Haiti, Augusto Pinochet of Chile, Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines, Manuel Noriega of Panama, Nicolai Ceaucescu of Rumania, as well as the brutal Communist Dergue regime in Ethiopia.
1951 April: The small intelligence department sorting under the foreign ministry, is replaced with Mossad which serves only under the prime minister.
June: Mossad's director, Reuven Shiloah signs a clandestine agreement with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the USA.
1960: Mossad kidnaps the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Argentina, and brings him to Israel to stand trial for the killing of Jews. He was sentenced to death (the only time in Israeli juridical history), and hanged in 1962.
1972: Following the Palestinian terrorist attack on Israeli athletes under the Olympics, Mossad assassinate 12 Palestinians involved in the act.
1973 July 21: Mossad agents kill an innocent Moroccan civilian man in Norway, believing him to be a Palestinian involved in the Olympic killings. 6 Israelis are sentenced to prison for the murder, which is criticized by Israeli press.
1975: Mossad arranges a secret meeting between prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and king Hussein 1 of Jordan. A second meeting was held in 1977.
1976 July: Mossad agents storm the airport in Entebbe, Uganda where 100 hostages are being held on an airplane from Tel Aviv.
1979 April: Mossad agents blow up two nuclear cores while in France, with Iraq as the destination.
1980 August: Mossad kills the Egyptian nuclear physicist Yahya al-Mashad.
1981 June 4: Together with the military intelligence, Mossad organizes an attack on a nuclear facility under construction near Baghdad.
1982 June: Israel invades Lebanon, following intelligence work performed by Mossad.
1985 October 1: Together with the military intelligence, Mossad organizes an attack on PLO headquarters south of Tunis, Tunisia, killing 56 Palestinians.
1986 September: Mossad agents tricked Mordechai Vanunu to Rome to have him arrested and sentenced to prison in Israel. Vanunu who had informed Western newspapers about Israel's illegal development of nuclear weapons.
1986 November: With the Irangate affair of the USA, Mossad proves to have been helping in exporting arms to Iran and negotiating for the release of US hostages in Lebanon.
1988 April: Mossad agents kill the Palestinian leader, Khalil Wazir in Tunisia.
1991: Mossad agents tried to kill president Saddam Hussein of Iraq, but didn't succeed.
1997: Mossad performs a bungled assassination attempt on Hamas leader Khaled Mashaal in the middle of the streets in Amman, Jordan.
1999 August: It is believed that Mossad participate in the kidnap of Kurdish leader Abdullah Öcalan in Kenya, in order to bring him in front of a Turkish tribunal. Mossad denies this fiercly, but it has been admitted earlier from Turkey that Mossad and Turkish agents had been cooperating in the hunt of Öcalan.
2001 August-September: Mossad signals CIA of a coming attack from Osama bin Laden group, but this is not taken serious by the Americans.