Ancient Egypt / Religion / Structures / Pyramids / Giza
Khafre, Pyramid of
Its measures are 143.5 metres height, and 215 metres along its base. The angle of its sides are 53º10'. The actual volume is 85.6% of Khufu's. Khafre's pyramid has a twist to the top, as the four corner angles would not have met at the apex according to the original layout. This makes this the least perfect king pyramid at Giza; Khufu's deviates only 4.4 cm.
The structure was built from standard local limestone, very roughly cut. It was cased in Turah limestone, with the exception of the bottom course, which was made in granite. The top still contains the original casing; the lower sections have been cleared by locals.
The construction period must have exceeded 20 years.
The interior of the pyramid is made accessed by two entrances, both at the centre of the northern side. The shafts meet to form one horizontal shaft that ends in the burial chamber, vertically deep down in the pyramid, but 14 metres east and 5 metres north of the exact centre. The lower shaft leads to a subsidiary chamber, which purpose is unknown. It is suggested to have been a serdab chamber, or have been used for storing offerings.
The funerary complex to the pyramid became complex, far more than what was the case with Khafre's pyramid. Three temples were built, and most likely, the Sphinx was built as part of the whole complex. In the mortuary temple, 52 life-size or larger statues of Khafre were used, but all were removed in ancient times.
5 boat pits were dug out on both sides of the mortuary temple, 2 to the north, 3 to the south. Two of the bits retain the roofing slabs.
A causeway, 494 metres long, leads to the valley temple. This deviates from the axis of the pyramid itself, ending in a temple placed on the odd side of the Sphinx complex. There is no apparent reason why the causeway bends south.
The valley temple is the oldest well-preserved of its kind. Its design is crude and simple, built by over-dimensioned stones having no decorations.
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