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Third Jewish revolt
Also called: Bar Kokhba revolt; Third Jewish-Roman war
Depending on definitions: Second Jewish revolt; Second Jewish-Roman war
Hebrew: ha-mered ha-gadol

Rebellion by Jews of Judah against the Romans, lasting 3 years, 132-135 CE.
The revolt began as a reaction to Roman plans to found a colony on the site of Jerusalem, as well as against restrictions on Jewish practice, like the prohibition of circumcision. The leader of the rebellion was Simon Bar Kokhba, who would be the leader of a new Jewish state lasting for about 3 years, taking the title Nasi Israel, Prince of Israel. Bar Kokhba was understood as a Messianic figure by many Jews of his time.
When finally defeated, the Romans revenged with extreme brutality, killing each and every Jew they could suspect of being part of the revolt. The Romans continued with a campaign to root out Judaism, banning rituals, closing institutions, burning manuscripts and having religious scholars killed. The region was even renamed to Syria Palaestina.
Jews would remain in the region even now, now with Gallilee as the main centre. The most vital Jewish community would still for a long time be that of Babylonia. But, over the years, Jews forced into exile or enslaved, would return to their homeland, bringing new life into local Jewish communities.
Contemporary historians claim that about 580,000 killed were killed in this revolt, but this appears as an extreme exaggeration, apparently exceeding the total number of inhabitants. Still, the numbers of killed must have been high.

130: Emperor Hadrian visits Jerusalem, making a promise that the Jewish community understands as a positive initiative to revive the Jewish capital and institutions.
132: Jews of the region revolts after finding out about Roman plans to destroy Jewish sites and regulations. The revolt is lead by Bar Kokhba, who gains immediate success and soon takes control of Jerusalem.
— The Romans launch a great campaign on the Jews, fighting would cause great losses on both sides.
135: Romans first take control of Jerusalem, Bar Kokhba relocates to Bethar (south of Caesarea), where the final battle is fought. All fighting Jews are killed, and all Jews are even expelled from Jerusalem, and a general regulation hindering their access to Jerusalem would be imposed.

By Tore Kjeilen