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Ca. 2220-ca. 2120 BCE

Mesopotamia /
Also referred to as: Guti

Barbaric tribe that took control of Mesopotamia from ca. 2220, destroying the Akkadian Empire, remaining the rulers until ca. 2120 BCE, when they were replaced by the 3rd Dynasty of Ur.
They were apparently a people from the Zagros mountains, south of Subartu and north of Elam.
Their period of ruling Mesopotamia was one of chaos, administration fell apart, and irrigation was not attended to, causing great fall in agricultural output.
The Gutians were in all aspects barbarians, their only skills were in war and exploitation, and their warfare only successful because of Mesopotamian weakness. Due to dramatic changes in the water supplies in the rivers, Mesopotamia experienced dramatic drop in agricultural output, and thereby poverty for the state.
No artefacts of theirs have survived, and their language is unknown.
Despite all the negative, one region emerged with great wealth, Lagash under its governor, Gudea.
They never controlled all of Mesopotamia, and eventually rulers of Uruk and Ur would rise to drive them out.

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By Tore Kjeilen