From French: Front de Libération Nationale
Arabic: jabha 'at-tahrīr al-wataniyy
Leading party on the Muslim side during the Algerian War 1954-1962, the only legal party of Algeria until 1989.
FNL leaders arrested 1956: Rabah Bitat; Mohammed Boudiaf; Ali Ahmed Hossein; Mohammed Khider; and Ahmed Ben Bella..
|Ahmed Ben Bella
Algerian guerilla in the early years of the Algerian War, forming the beginnings of FLN.
Today, FLN is no longer a leading party og Algeria, much of
Although Algeria becoming a one-party state, FLN had several factions. The earliest major schism was between the socialist Ben Bella and the former head of the government-in-exile, Farhat Abbas, a political moderate. It would be Ben Bella emerging as the victor.
But Ben Bella's power was only as strong as the ALN permitted, and the second important conflict came in 1965, when former ALN leaders ousted Ben Bella from power.
In its orientation, the FLN had a socialist ideology within a Muslim framework. The program secured equal rights for all citizens, no matter what religion. Established in exile, it called for both guerilla warfare and diplomatic activity around the world.
Central to the FLN's claim to sole power was the notion that the FLN, together with the ALN (Armée de libération nationale), won war against the France between 1954 and 1962. In part of this claim, it has been alleged that the war cost Algeria 1 million lives. Both of these claims are incorrect, the war was not won militarily, it came by diplomatic efforts, and the correct number is around 400,000.
One of the few groups standing on the outside of FLN during the Algerian War, was the MNA.
1946: While under house arrest in France; Messali Hadj together with Ferhat Abbas forms the democratic group MTLD.
1947: Young members of MTLD form the Secret Organization, OS, which collects arms and money and organized a network of cells throughout Algeria.
1949: A terror attack by OS is peformed in Oran.
1954 March: 9 former members of OS forms the CRUA, the Revolutionary Council for Unity and Action.
November 1: While in exile in Egypt, CRUA changes its name to FIS, and forms its military units into the ALN.
FLN begins guerrilla and terrorist attacks in Algeria, mainly in the countryside.
1956: Practically all Muslim nationalist movements of Algeria have joined the FLN, including Ferhat Abbas.
August-September: The first FLN congress Soummam Valley in Kabylia. The congress divides Algeria into 6 wilayas, each controlled by a guerilla commander over ALN units. Administrative bodies for FLN are also set up.
1962 May: An Algerian congress in Tripoli agrees on the political platform for Muslim independent Algeria; this also becomes the new program of FLN.
July: Ben Bella and Boumedienne forms the Political Bureau claiming to be the leadership of FLN.
Power struggle within FLN, largely between the factions of Ahmed Ben Bella and Ferhat Abbas.
1963 January: FLN takes control of the UGTA, the labour organization.
August: With a new constitution, FLN makes itself the sole political party of Algeria.
After 1967: FLN looses its importance, as President Boumedienne takes direct control over Algerian politics.
1980's: FLN changes its programme from strict socialism.
2002: In the parliamentary elections, FLN receives 34% of the votes, winning them 199 out of 389 seats.
2004 April 8: Ali Benflis of FLN gets a meagre 6.4% of the votes in presidential elections.