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Ca. 2200-ca. 1600 BCE

Ancient World /
Arabic: dilmūn
Other spelling: Telmun

Temple of Barbar, Dilmun (Bahrain)

Independent kingdom flourishing from around around 2200 until 1600 BCE, most likely with the island of modern Bahrain as its centre.
Dilmun's rise to prominence came from a combination of ideal location in the Persian Gulf and the many natural springs of Bahrain.
Dilmun appears to have been the most important commercial centre as well as a transshipment point for goods between Sumer and the Indus Valley. The rise of Dilmun corresponded with the establishment of trade between the two civilizations. The decline of Dilmun corresponded with the decline of the civilization in the Indus Valley.
The main products traded through Dilmun were copper, stone beads, precious stones, pearls, dates, vegetables and other agricultural products.
Since its decline, Dilmun lost most of its importance. It was apparently made a vassal of Assyria in the 8th century BCE and was later fully incorporated into the Neo-Babylonian Empire. With the arrival of Islam in the 7th century CE, Dilmun almost completely disappears from of history.
Bahrain holds a number of fine remains from the Dilmun era. Most notable is the temple of Barbar, while the Qala'at Bahrain on the northern coast contains remains of the main city of Dilmun from 2800 until 1800 BCE.

By Tore Kjeilen