Bookmark and Share



























Open the online Arabic language course







Ca. 1850-1760 BCECa. 1350-610's BCE


Ancient World / Mesopotamia / Assyria /
Kings
Akkadian: sharrum


Assyrian kings, called sharrum, were not divine like one could see in Egypt. The king was from early on designated as ishshiak assur, "the steward of Ashur". But the kings legitimacy appears not given by the gods, rather it was a matter of belonging to the royal family. In the Middle period, the king was also the High Priest of Ashur, the state god.
Several times one sees that apparent usurpers make a point of stating they are of the royal family. There are a few possible exceptions, kings that create themselves apart from previous rulers, but this could be understood as strong rulers legitimazing breaking free from the influence of the elite.
The king was a practical ruler, often heading the military on dangerous campaigns. He was on top of administration, but the governance of the state rested on the competence of governors, dignitaries and regional representatives.
Kings proudly associated themselves with religions, building, expanding or repairing important temples.
Old Assyrian
This period has kings from ca. 1800 BCE right up to ca. 1380, when the Middle Assyrian period is defined to begin. Few of these are known beyond appearing on ancient Assyrian king lists. Here are listed only those kings that are known by their deeds.
Erishum 1 Ca. 1906-1867 39
Ikunum Ca. 1867-1860 7
...
Shamshi-Adad 1 Ca. 1813-1791 22
...
Ashur-Nirari 1 Ca. 1529-1503 26
Puzur-Ashur 3 1503-1479 24
...
Ashur-nadin-ahhe 2 Ca. 1390-1380 10
Middle Assyrian
Eriba-Adad 1 ca. 1380-1353 27
Ashur-uballit 1 ca. 1353-1318 1365-1330 35
Enlil-nirari ca. 1317-1308 9
Arik-den-ili ca. 1307-1296 11
Adad-nirari 1 ca. 1295-1264 31
Shalmaneser 1 ca. 1263-1234 1274-1245 29
Tukulti-Ninurta 1 ca. 1233-1197 36
Ashur-nadin-apli ca. 1196-1194 2
Ashur-ninari 3 ca. 1193-1188 5
Enlil-kudurri-usur ca. 1187-1183 4
Ninurta-apal-Ekur ca. 1182-1180 2
Ashur-Dan 1 ca. 1179-1133 46
Ashur-resh-ishi 1 ca. 1133-1115 18
Tiglath-Pileser 1 ca. 1115-1076 39
Asharid-apal-Ekur ca. 1076-1074 2
Ashur-bel-kala ca. 1074-1056 18
Eriba-Adad 2 ca. 1056-1054 2
Shamshi-Adad 4 ca. 1054-1050 4
Ashurnasirpal 1 ca. 1050-1031 19
Shalmaneser 2 ca. 1031-1019 12
Ashur-nirari 4 ca. 1019-1013 6
Ashur-rabi 2 ca. 1013-972 41
Ashur-resh-ishi 2 ca. 972-967 5
Tiglath-Pileser 2 ca. 967-935 ca. 965-ca. 932 32
Ashur-dan 2 ca. 935-912 23
Neo-Assyrian
Adad-nirari 2 912-891 21
Tukulti-Ninurta 2 891-884 7
Ashurnasirpal 2 884-859 25
Shalmaneser 3 859-824 35
Ashur-danin-pal 824 ...
Shamshi-Adad 5 824-811 13
Queen Shammuramat
811-808 3
Adad-nirari 3 811-783 28
Shalmaneser 4 783-773 10
Ashur-dan 3 773-755 18
Ashur-nirari 5 755-745 10
Tiglath-Pileser 3 745-727 18
Shalmaneser 5 727-722 5
Sargon 2 722-705 17
Sennacherib 705-681 24
Esarhaddon 681-669 12
Ashurbanipal 669-ca. 631 38
Ashur-etil-ilani ca. 631-ca. 627 4
Sin-shumu-lishir 626 ...
Sin-shar-ishkun ca. 627-612 15
Ashur-uballit 2 612-609 3






Confused? Try to find a good place to start learning about Mesopotamia in
Where to begin?Detailed article






By Tore Kjeilen