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Islam / Theology | Allah /
99 names of God

The 99 names of God
The list below is one of several ways to arrange the names, with different numbering.
1.AllahThe God
2. ar-RahmanThe All Beneficent
3. ar-RahīmThe Most Merciful
4. al-MalikThe King, The Sovereign
5. al-QuddūsThe Most Holy
6. as-SalāmPeace and Blessing
7. al-Mu'minThe Guarantor
8. al-MuhayminThe Guardian, the Preserver
9. al-'AzīzThe Almighty, the Self Sufficient
10. al-JabbārThe Powerful, the Irresistible
11. al-MutakabbirThe Tremendous
12. al-KhāliqThe Creator
13. al-Barī'The Maker
14. al-MusawwirThe Fashioner of Forms
15. al-GhaffārThe Ever Forgiving
16. al-QahhārThe All Compelling Subduer
17. al-WahhābThe Bestower
18. al-RazzāqThe Ever Providing
19. al-FattāhThe Opener, the Victory Giver
20. al-AlīmThe All Knowing, the Omniscient
21. al-QābidThe Restrainer, the Straightener
22. al-BāsitThe Expander, the Munificent
23. al-KhāfidThe Abaser
24. ar-Rāfi¢The Exalter
25. al-Mu¢izzThe Giver of Honor Giver of Dishonorī¢The All HearingīrThe All Seeing
29. al-HakamThe Judge, the Arbitrator
30. al-¢adlThe Utterly Just
31. al-LatīfThe Subtly Kind
32. al-KhabīrThe All Aware
33. al-HalīmThe Forbearing, the Indulgent
34. al-¢azīmThe Magnificent, the Infinite
35. al-GhafūrThe All Forgiving
36. ash-ShakūrThe Grateful
37. al-¢alīThe Sublimely Exalted
38. al-KabīrThe Greatest
39. al-HafīzThe Preserver
40. al-MuqītThe
41. al-HasībThe Reckoner
42. al-JalīlThe Majestic
43. al-KarīmThe Bountiful, the Generous
44. ar-RaqībThe Watchful
45. al-MujībThe Responsive, the Answerer
46. al-Wāsi¢The Vast, the All Encompassing
47. al-HakīmThe Wise
48. al-WadūdThe Loving, the Kind One
49. al-MajīdThe All Glorious
50. al-Bā¢ithThe Raiser of the Dead
51. ash-ShahīdThe Witness
52. al-HaqqThe Truth, the Real
53. al-WakilThe Trustee, the Dependable
54. al-QawiyyThe Strong
55. al-MatīnThe Firm, the Steadfast
56. al-WalīThe Protecting Friend, Patron, and Helper
57. al-HamīdThe All Praiseworthy
58. al-MuhsīThe Accounter, the Numberer of All
59. al-Mubdi'The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of all
60. al-Mu'idThe Reinstater Who Brings Back All
61. al-MuhyiThe Giver of Life
62. al-MumītThe Bringer of Death, the Destroyer
63. al-HayyThe Ever Living
64. al-QayyūmThe Self Subsisting Sustainer of All
65. al-WājidThe Perceiver, the Finder, the Unfailing
66. al-MājidThe Illustrious, the Magnificent
67. al-WāhidThe One, the All Inclusive, the Indivisible
68. as-SamadThe Self Sufficient, the Impregnable, the Eternally Besought of All, the Everlasting
69. al-QādirThe All Able
70. al-MuqtadirThe All Determiner, the Dominant
71. al-MuqaddimThe Expediter, He who brings forward
72. al-Mu'akhkhirThe Delayer, He who puts far away
73. al-AwwalThe First
74. al-AkhirThe Last
75. az-ZāhirThe Manifest; the All
76. al-BātinThe Hidden; the All Encompassing
77. al-WālīThe Patron
78. al-Mut¢ālīThe Self Exalted
79. al-BarrThe Most Kind and Righteous
80. at-TawwābThe Ever Returning, Ever Relenting
81. al-MuntaqimThe Avenger
82. al-¢afuwThe Pardoner, the Effacer of Sins
83. ar-Ra'ūfThe Compassionate, the All Pitying
84. Mālik al-Mulk The Owner of All Sovereignty
85. Dhu l-Jalāl wa l-Ikrām The Lord of Majesty and Generosity
86. al-MuqsitThe Equitable, the Requiter
87. al-Jāmi¢The Gatherer, the Unifier
88. al-GhanīThe All Rich, the Independent
89. al-MughThe Enricher, the Emancipator
90. al-Māni¢The Withholder, the Shielder, the Defender
91. ad-DārrThe Distressor, the Harmer
92. an-Nāfi¢The Propitious, the Benefactor
93. an-NūrThe Light
94. al-Hādī'The Guide
95. al-Badī¢Incomparable, the Originator
96. al-Bāqī¢The Ever Enduring and Immutable
97. al-WārithThe Heir, the Inheritor of All
98. ar-RashīdThe Guide, Infallible Teacher, and Knower
99. as-SabūrThe Patient, the Timeless

Concept of Islam, defining God to 99 names or qualities.
Of the 99, 85 are presented in the Koran. Many of these names are used as adjectives, but in Arabic that is no hindrance from using them as proper names. Several adjectives used for God in the Koran are not among the 99, and some scholars have identified up to a total of 200 names.
The concept of the 99 names is defined by one hadith passage, which is believed to be confirmed by the Koran verses below. The hadith passage of Bukhari below is also found in Muslim's collections (Book 35, Number 6475):

Koran sura 20: Ta Ha
7 God, there is no god but He! His are the excellent names.

Koran sura 7: The Heights
179 But Godís are the good names; call on Him then thereby [...]

Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 50
894 Narrated Abu Huraira: God's apostle said, "God has ninety-nine names, i.e. one-hundred minus one, and whoever knows them will go to Paradise".

The names may be understood as an attempt to make humans understand the greatness of God, although the comprehension of these names will not measure up to the true and complete nature of God. Also, according to the above mentioned hadith passage, the knowledge or utterance of the 99 names will provide for a place in Paradise.
Note that Koran 7:179 refers to the names as "good names", while some of the names on the 99-list are gruesome like "The Bringer of Death, the Destroyer" (no. 62) and "The Avenger" (no. 81), and perhaps even "The Giver of Dishonor" (no. 26).
One of the names, no. 91, 'ad-Darr, "The Distressor, the Harmer", has the hadiths as its only source, and is also a name used for Satan.
God's 99 names are popular with creating personal names, but then Abd, "servant", is put in front. Naming directly from God's names is not permitted.
For Sufism, the idea of a 100th name has great religious value. By their rituals, Sufis may reach the understanding of the 100th name, thereby full and complete understanding of God, or even to merge the consciousness with God's.
Muslim tradition involves the expectation that Mahdi upon his arrival will reveal the 100th name of God to the world.
Baha'is claim the knowledge of the 100th name, which came with Baha'ullah: al-Baha', "Glory, brilliance". By this claim, they established a new religion, and departed from Islam.

By Tore Kjeilen